Cognitive Sciences

What are Cognitive Sciences?

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary study of mind and intelligence, embracing philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. [Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

An interdisciplinary science that draws on many fields (as psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and philosophy) in developing theories about human perception, thinking, and learning. [Merriam-Webster]

Cognitive science can be roughly summed up as the scientific interdisciplinary study of the mind. … It results from the efforts of researchers working in … philosophy, psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, robotics, and neuroscience. [In “Cognitive Science” by Friedenberg and Silverman]



Introduction to Cognitive Sciences and related works



  • Johnson-Laird, Philip N. (1980). Mental models in cognitive science. Cognitive Science, 4(1), 71-115.
  • Searle, John R. (1980). The Intentionality of Intention and Action. Cognitive Science, 4(1), 47-70.
  • Simon, Herbert A. (1980). Cognitive Science. The Newest Science of the Artificial. Cognitive Science, 4(1), 33-46.
  • Norman, Donald A. (1980). Twelve Issues for Cognitive Science. Cognitive Science, 4(1), 1-32.
  • Pylyshyn, Zenon W. (1980). Cognition and computation: Issues in the foundations of cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3:1, 154-169.


  • Chi, Michelene T. H., Feltovich, Paul J., & Glaser, Robert. (1981). Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, 5, 121-152.
  • Fodor, Jerry A. (1981). Representations: Philosophical Essays on the Foundations of Cognitive Science. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.


  • Feldman, Jerome A., & Ballard, D. H. (1982). Connectionist models and their properties. Cognitive Science, 6, 205-254.
  • Thagard, P. (1982). Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science. North-Holland, Elsevier.


  • Gentner, Derdre. (1983). Structure-mapping: A theoretical framework for analogy. Cognitive Science, 7, 155-170.
  • Wilks, Y. & Bien, J. (1983). Beliefs, Point of View, and Multiple Environments. Cognitive Science, 7, 95-119.


  • Pylyshyn, Zenon W. (1984). Computation and Cognition: Toward a Foundation for Cognitive Science. Cambridge: MIT Press.


  • Rumelhart, David E., & Zipser, David. (1985). Feature discovery by competitive learning. Cognitive Science, 9, 75-112.


  • Elio, R. (1986). Representation of Similar Well-Learned Cognitive Procedures. Cognitive Science, 10, 41-73.
  • Thibadeau, R. (1986). Artificial Perception of Actions. Cognitive Science, 10, 117-149.
  • Thagard, P. (1986). Parallel Computation and the Mind-Body Problem. Cognitive Science, 10, 301-318.
  • Wagner, P. A. (1986). Review of Steven Stich’s “From Folk Psychology to Cognitive Science”. Cognitive Science, 10, 365-370.
  • Rapaport, W. J. (1986). Logical Foundations for Belief Representation. Cognitive Science, 10, 371-422.
  • Landauer, T. K. (1986). How Much do People Remember? Some Estimates of the Quantity of Learned Information in Long-Term Memory. Cognitive, 10, 477-493.


  • Larkin, Jill H., & Simon, Herbert A. (1987). Why a diagram is (sometimes) worth 10,000 word. Cognitive Science, 11, 65-99.
  • H. C Longuet-Higgins. (1987). Mental processes: studies in cognitive science. Volume 1, Explorations in Cognitive Science. MIT Press: Cambridge, Mass.


  • Fodor, Jerry A., & Pylyshyn, Zenon W. (1988). Connectionism and cognitive architecture: A critical analysis.
    Cognition 28, 3-71.
  • Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1988). The Computer and the Mind: An Introduction to Cognitive Science. Harvard University Press, CA: Massachusetts.
  • Landauer, T. K. (1988). An Estimate of How Much People Remember, Not of Underlying Cognitive Capacities. Cognitive Science, 12, 293-297.
  • Lewis, C. (1988). Why and How to Learn Why: Analysis-based Generalization of Procedures. Cognitive Science, 12, 211-256.
  • Kuipers, B. et al. (1988). Critical Decisions Under Uncertainty: Representation and Structure. Cognitive Science, 12, 177-210.
  • Suchman, L. A. (1988). Representing Practice in Cognitive Science. Human Studies, 11(2/3), 305-325.
  • Sweller, J. (1988). Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning. Cognitive Science, 12, 257-285.


  • Hampson, P. J. (1989). Aspects of Attention and Cognitive Science. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 10(2), 261-275.
  • Hunt, E. (1989). Cognitive Science: Definition, Status, and Questions. Annual Review of Psychology, 40, 603-629.
  • Posner, M. I. (1989). Foundations of cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


  • Elman, Jeffrey L. (1990). Finding structure in time. Cognitive Science, 14, 179-211.
  • Smeaton, A. F. & McDermott, G. (1990). Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science ’89. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
  • Spelke, Elizabeth S. (1990). Principles of object perception. Cognitive Science, 14, 29-56.


  • Jacobs, Robert A., Jordan, Michael I., & Barto, Andrew G. (1991). Task decomposition through competition in a modular connectionist architecture – the what and where vision tasks. Cognitive Science, 15, 219-250.
  • Varela, F. J., Thompson, E., & Rosch, E. (1991). The embodied mind: cognitive science and human experience. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.


  • Ryan, K. & Sutcliffe, F. E. (1992). Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science ’92. New York: Springer-Verlag.


  • Kearney, G. D. & McKenzie, S. (1993). Machine Interpretation of Emotion: Design of a MemoryBased Expert System for Interpreting Facial Expressions in Terms of Signaled Emotions. Cognitive Science, 17, 589, 622.
  • Norman, D. A. (1993). Cognition in the Head and the World: An Introduction to the Special Issue on Situated Cognition. Cognitive Science, 17, 1-6.
  • Pollock, J. L. (1993). The Philogeny of Rationality. Cognitive Science, 17, 563-588.
  • Rabinowitz, M. (Ed.) (1993). Cognitive Science Foundations of Instruction. Lawrence Erlbaum, New Jersey.
  • Richard, J-F., Poitrenaud, S. & Tijus, C. (1993). Problem-solving restructuration: Elimination of Implicit Constraints. Cognitive Science, 17(4), 497-529.
  • Vera, A. H. & Herbert, A. S. (1993). Situated action: A symbolic interpretation. Cognitive Science, 17(1), 7-48.
  • Von Eckardt, B. (1993). What is cognitive science? MIT Press, Cambridge: MA.


  • Epstein, S. L. (1994). For the Right Reasons: the FORR Architecture for Learning in a Skill Domain. Cognitive Science 18, 479-511.
  • Keane, M. T. , Ledgeway, T. & Duff, S. (1994). Constraints on Analogical Mapping: A Comparison of Three Models. Cognitive Science 18, 387-438.
  • Zhang, J. & Norman, D. A. (1994). Representations in Distributed Cognitive Tasks. Cognitive Science 18, 87-122.


  • Hutchins Edwin. (1995). How A Cockpit Remembers its Speeds. Cognitive Science, 19, 265-288.
  • Stillings, Neil A., Weisler, Steven E., Chase, Christopher H., Feinstein, Mark H., Garfield, Jay L. & Rissland, Edwina L. (1995). Cognitive Science. An Introduction. 2nd Edition. The MIT Press, Cambridge MA.



  • Shafto, M. G. & Langley, P. (Eds.)(1997). Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum.


  • Gernsbacher, A. M., & Derry, S. J. (Ed.)(1998). Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum.




  • Albertazzi, L. (2001). The Dawn of Cognitive Science. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publisher.
  • Von Eckardt, B. (2001). Multidisciplinarity and cognitive science. Cognitive Science, 25, 453-470.



  • Miller, G. A. (2003). The cognitive revolution: a historical perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences7, 141–144.



  • Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T. & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 675 -691.







  • Engel A. (2011). Why cognitive neuroscience should adopt a “pragmatic stance”. In Newen, A., Bartels, A. & Jung E. (2011) Knowledge and Representation. Mentis, Paderborn, Germany.


  • Frankish, Keith. (2012). The Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive Science. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Margolis, E., Samuels, R., & Stitch, S. P. (2012). Philosophy of Cognitive Science. Oxford, Oxford University Press.




  • Bermúdez, José L. (2014). Cognitive Science. An Introduction to the Study of Mind. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.




  • Christiansen, M. H. & Arnon, I. (2017). More Than Words: The Role of Multiword Sequences in Language Learning and Use. Topics in Cognitive Science, 9(3), 537-878.
  • Shapero, J. A. (2017). Does Environmental Experience Shape Spatial Cognition? Frames of Reference Among Ancash Quechua Speakers. Cognitive Science, 41, 1274-1298.
  • Schwarzlose, R. (2017). Trends in Cognitive Science. Vol. 21, Issue 9 (pp. 633-718). Cell Press.



On Theory of Mind


Language and Cognition

  • Athanasopoulos, P., Evans, V., Francis, E., Hart, C. & Michaelis, L. & Winter, B. (2007). Language and Cognition. An interdisciplinary journal of language and cognitive science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Chomsky, N. (2006). Language and Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3rd Ed.
  • Evans, V. & Green, M. (2006). Cognitive Linguistics: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Croft, W. & Cruse, D. A. (2004) Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Evans, V., Benjamin K. B. & Zinken, J. (Eds.) (2007). The Cognitive Linguistics Reader. London: Equinox Publishing Co.
  • Evans, V. (2007). A Glossary of Cognitive Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. (2003). The Way We Think. New York: Basic Books.
  • Gibbs (1996) in Casad ED. Cognitive Linguistics in the Redwoods: The Expansion of a New Paradigm in Linguistics (Cognitive Linguistic Research) Mouton De Gruyter (June 1996).
  • Geeraerts, D. (Ed). (2006). Cognitive Linguistics: Basic Readings. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Geeraerts, D. & Cuyckens, H. (Eds). (2007). The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Geeraerts, D. & Cuyckens, H. (2012). Introducing Cognitive Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Gupta, P. & Touretzky, D. S. (1994). Connectionist Models and Linguistic Theory: Investigations of Stress Systems in Language. Cognitive Science 18, 1-50.
  • Jackendoff, R. (1996). Conceptual semantics and Cognitive linguistics. Cognitive Linguistics, 7-1, 93-129.
  • Kristiansen et al. (Eds.) (2006). Cognitive Linguistics: Current Applications and Future Perspectives. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things. What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we Live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1998). Philosophy in the Flesh. The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic Books.
  • Lamb, S. M. (1971). The Crooked Path of Progress in Cognitive Linguistics. Georgetown University Monograph Series on Languages and Linguistics, 24, 99-123.
  • Lamb, S. M. (1999). Pathways of the Brain. The Neurocognitive Basis of Language. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Langacker, R. W. (1987). Foundations of Cognitive Grammar Vol. 1: Theoretical Prerequisites. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Langacker, R. W. (1990). Concept, Image, and Symbol. The Cognitive Basis of Grammar. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Langacker, R. W. (1991). Foundations of Cognitive Grammar Vol. 2: Descriptive Application. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Langlotz, Andreas. 2006. Idiomatic Creativity: A Cognitive-linguistic Model of Idiom-representation And Idiom Variation in English. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Lee, D. A. (2001). Cognitive Linguistics: An Introduction (1st ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
  • Schnelle, H. (2010). Language in the Brain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Taylor, J. R. (2002). Cognitive Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wolf, et al. (2006), The Cognitive Linguistics Bibliography. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.

Philosophy and Cognition

  • Harré, R. (2002). Cognitive Science: A Philosophical Introduction. SAGE Publications.
  • Kossylyn, S. M. (1997). Mental Imagery. In Gazzaniga, M. S. (Ed.), Conversation on Cognitive Science, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • McCauley, N. R. (1998). Levels of explanation and cognitive architectures. In Bechtel, W. & Graham, G. (Eds.), A Companion to Cognitive Science. Blackwell, Oxford
  • Magnani, L. & Dossena, R. (2005). Computing, Philosophy and Cognition. College Publications.
  • Place, T. U. (1956). Is consciousness a brain process? British Journal pf Psychology in Beakley, B. & Ludlow, P. (Eds.), The Philosophy of Mind. A Bradford Book, The MIT Press.
  • Samuels, R., Margolis, E. & Stich, S. P. (2012). Introduction: Philosophy and Cognitive Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Searle, J. R. (1992). The Rediscovery of the Mind. The MIT Press, CA: Massachusetts.
  • Van Gelder, Tim. (1995). What might cognition be if not computation? Journal of Philosophy 92, 345–381.
  • Van Gulick, R. (2001). Reduction, Emergence and other Recent Options on the Mind/Body Problem. A Philosophic Overview. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8(9-10), 1-34.

Neurology and Cognition